plan is a plan for
architecture, and the documentation of written and graphic descriptions
of the architectural elements of a building
project including sketches, drawings and details.
Schloss Plan, 1888.
The term "Architectural plan" can have multiple
- Plan for an architectural
- Documentation of
written and graphic
descriptions of the architectural elements of a building project
including sketches, drawings and details. This effort could also
includes both the design of new buildings and other structures, as well
as the planning for reconstruction of early historic structures. 
- architectural design
- Floor plan
- Scale drawing
of a structure. "the plans for City Hall were on file".
This article will
focus on the general meaning of
architectural plan as a plan and documentation for a building project.
An architectural plan
is a type of plan for
architecture to describe a place or object, or to communicate building
or fabrication instructions. It can containing technical architectural
drawings and documentation, and are drawn or printed on paper, but they
can take the form of a digital file. Their purpose in these disciplines
is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the geometric features
of a site, building, product or component. Plans can also be for
presentation or orientation purposes, and as such are often less
detailed versions of the former. The end goal of plans is either to
portray an existing place or object, or to convey enough information to
allow a builder or manufacturer to realize a design.
Types of architectural plans
A floor plan in
architecture and building
engineering is a diagram, usually to scale, of the relationships
between rooms, spaces and other physical features at one level of a
structure. Dimensions are usually drawn between the walls to specify
room sizes and wall lengths. Floor plans will also include details of
fixtures like sinks, water heaters, furnaces, etc. Floor plans will
include notes to specify finishes, construction methods, or symbols for
Similar to a map in
an floor plan the orientation
of the view is downward from above, but unlike a conventional map, a
plan is understood to be drawn at a particular vertical position
(commonly at about 3 feet above the floor). Objects below this level
are seen, objects at this level are shown 'cut' in plan-section, and
objects above this vertical position within the structure are omitted
or shown dashed. Plan view or
"planform" is defined as a vertical orthographic projection of an
object on a horizontal plane, like a map.
Floor plan for a
Garden design is
the art and process of designing and creating plans
for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Garden design may be
done by the garden owner themselves, or by professionals of varying
levels of experience and expertise. Most professional garden designers
are trained in principles of design and in horticulture, and have an
expert knowledge and experience of using plants. Some professional
garden designers are also landscape architects, a more formal level of
training that usually requires an advanced degree and often a state
license. Many amateur gardeners also attain a high level of experience
from extensive hours working in their own gardens, through casual study
or Master Gardener Programs offered
by the American Horticultural Society.
Landscape planning is
a branch of landscape
architecture. Urban park systems and greenways of the type planned by
Frederick Law Olmsted are key examples of urban landscape planning.
Landscape designers tend to work for clients who wish to commission
construction work. Landscape planners can look beyond the 'closely
drawn technical limits' and 'narrowly drawn territorial boundaries'
which constrain design projects.
Landscape planners tend to work on projects which:
- are of broad geographical scope
- concern many land uses or many clients
- are implemented over a long period of time
In rural areas, the
damage caused by unplanned
mineral extraction was one of the early reasons for a public demand for
A site plan is an
architectural plan, and a
detailed engineering drawing of proposed improvements to a given lot. A site plan usually shows a building
footprint, travelways, parking, drainage facilities, sanitary sewer
lines, water lines, trails, lighting, and landscaping.
Such a plan of a site
is a graphic representation
of the arrangement of buildings, parking, drives, landscaping and any
other structure that is part of a development project.
A site plan is a set
drawings that a builder or contractor uses to make improvements
to a property. Counties can use the site plan to verify that
development codes are being met and as a historical resource. Site
plans are often prepared by a design consultant who must be either an
licensed engineer, architect, landscape architect or land survey.
Example of an Site plan.
planning is the field involved with
the siting of transportation facilities (generally streets, highways,
sidewalks, bike lanes and public transport lines).
planning historically has followed
the rational planning model of defining goals and objectives,
identifying problems, generating alternatives, evaluating alternatives,
and developing the plan. Other models for planning include rational actor, satisficing, incremental planning, organizational
process, and political bargaining. However, planners are increasingly
expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the
rising importance of environmentalism. For example, the use of
behavioral psychology to persuade drivers to abandon their automobiles
and use public transport instead. The role of the transport planner is
shifting from technical analysis to promoting sustainability through
integrated transport policies.
Urban, city, and town
planning is the integration
of the disciplines of land use planning and transport
planning, to explore a very wide range of aspects of the built
and social environments of urbanized municipalities and communities.
Regional planning deals with a still larger environment, at a less
Based upon the
origins of urban planning from the
Roman (pre-Dark Ages) era, the current discipline revisits the synergy
of the disciplines of urban planning, architecture and landscape
architecture, varying upon from the interlectural strategic positioning
from university to university.
Another key role of
urban planning is urban
renewal, and re-generation of inner cities by adapting urban planning
methods to existing cities suffering from long-term infrastructural
Urban planning designs
from the smallest towns to the largest cities.
Architectural plan topics
A plan is typically
any procedure used to achieve
an objective. It is a set of intended
actions, through which one expects to achieve a goal. Plans can be
formal or informal:
- Structured and
formal plans, used by multiple
people, are more likely to occur in projects, diplomacy, careers,
economic development, military campaigns, combat, or in the conduct of
- Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by
individuals in all of their pursuits.
The most popular ways
to describe plans are by
their breadth, time frame, and specificity; however, these planning
classifications are not independent of one another. For instance, there
is a close relationship between the short-and long-term categories and
the strategic and operational categories. It is common for less formal
plans to be created as abstract ideas, and remain in that form as they
are maintained and put to use. More formal plans as used for business
and military purposes, while initially created with and as an abstract
thought, are likely to be written down, drawn up or otherwise stored in
a form that is accessible to multiple people across time and space.
This allows more reliable collaboration in the execution of the plan.
A plan view is
an orthographic projection of a 3-dimensional object from the position
of a horizontal plane through the object. In other words, a plan is a
section viewed from the top. In such views, the portion of the object
in above the plane is omitted to reveal what lies beyond. In the case
of a floor plan, the roof and upper portion of the walls may be omitted.
Roof plans are
orthographic projections, but they
are not sections as their viewing plane is outside of the object. A
plan is a common method of depicting the internal arrangement of a
3-dimensional object in two dimensions. It is often used in technical
drawing and is traditionally crosshatched. The style of crosshatching
indicates the type of material the section passes through.
A sample floor plan for
a single-family home
Planning in organizations
and public policy is both the organizational process of creating and
maintaining a plan; and the psychological process of thinking about the activities required to
create a desired goal on some scale. As such, it is a fundamental
property of intelligent behavior. This thought process is essential to
the creation and refinement of a plan, or integration of it with other
plans, that is, it combines forecasting of developments with the
preparation of scenarios of how to react to them.
The term is also used
to describe the formal
procedures used in such an endeavor, such as the creation of documents
diagrams, or meetings to discuss the important issues to be addressed,
the objectives to be met, and the strategy to be followed. Beyond this,
planning has a different meaning depending on the political or economic
context in which it is used.
Examples of plans for specific types of buildings
Market hall plan
Opera house plan
Religious building plan
School building plan
Train station plan
University building plan
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